22-25/3/2018: "DER URSPRUNG DES LEBENS" - 31. EPF-JAHRESTAGUNG 2018 IN WARSCHAU
Zeit, Ort, Programm
Die 31.Jahrestagung der EPF findet vom 22. bis 25. März 2018 statt.
Marriott Hotel, Al. Jerozolimskie 65/79, PL 00-697 Warschau (Polen)
Sehr herzlich möchten wir Sie zur 31. Jahreskonferenz der EPF einladen, die vom 22. bis 25. März 2018 in Warschau stattfinden wird. Gastgeber wird die Polnische Psychoanalytische Gesellschaft sein, und wir sind den polnischen Kolleginnen und Kollegen sehr dankbar für die Möglichkeit, dass wir uns auf unserer Konferenz in Warschau eingehend mit aktuellen Fragen nach dem Ursprung des Lebens beschäftigen können.
LETTERS FROM WARSAW:
We prepublish them here with the permission of The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, the Letters will be published in IJP in issue 1, 2018.
1) THE BEGINNING OF PSYCHOANALYSIS IN POLAND
The history of the psychoanalytic movement in Poland is marked by recurrent loss. Therefore, it can be said that there were several beginnings.
Historical and social circumstances hindered or prevented the establishment of an institutional form of this movement for a long time. What is most characteristic of the psychoanalytic movement in Poland is the enthusiasm and passion, as well as the profiles of the most significant people dedicated to the idea of psychoanalysis.
Psychoanalytic thought in Poland was present almost from the very beginning of its formulation by Sigmund Freud. At that time, and until 1918, Poland did not exist as a state being divided into three parts among the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany and Russia. For this reason, many people studied not only in Cracow or Warsaw, but also in the major centers of scientific life in the area - in Vienna, Berlin and less often in Moscow.
As the authors of the exhibition on the history of Polish psychoanalysis wrote:
Among the members of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society until 1938, as many as 19 people were born on land recognized as Polish. Some of these people were also members of the Berlin Society. They were: Sigfried Bernfeld, Berta Bornstein, Stefania Borstein-Windholz, Gustaw Bychowski, Bernhard Dattner, Helena Deutsch, Ludwik Eidelberg, Salomea Gutmann-Isakower, Ludwik Jekels, Salomea Kempner, Edward Krohengold, Johaness Jaroslaw Marcinkowski, Hermann Nunberg, Beata Rank, Jozef Reinhold, Izydor Isaak Sadger, Max Schur, Eugenia Sokolnicka, Jenny Wälder.
Poland was a multinational country at the time, and the above mentioned people were of different nationalities. Some of them came from assimilated Jewish families, some from mixed Polish-Jewish families or from Polish-German families. However, most of them was strongly associated with Polish culture. Several people in this group felt Polish and maintained a strong bond with Poland. They tried to instill psychoanalytic ideas among Polish psychiatrists, translating Freud into Polish. We consider them pioneers of psychoanalysis in Poland. These were Ludwik Jekels, Hermann Nunberg and Gustaw Bychowski. Their profiles illustrate the significant influence of psychoanalysts coming from this region of Europe on the development of world psychoanalysis. In the face of the onslaught of fascism, they all emigrated to the United States and continued their clinical practice in New York. All of them had a significant contribution to the development of psychoanalysis there. Ludwik Jekels being temporarily in Sweden, along with Otto Fenichel, was also a co-founder of the Swedish-Finnish Psychoanalytic Society and was a key figure there.(Wojciechowska et al., 2012)
At this point, it is necessary to mention another person, who contributed immensely to the development of world psychoanalytic thought, and who until her death was associated with Poland. Hanna Segal was born in Lodz to an assimilated Jewish family. She grew up and went to school in Warsaw, and after a short stay in Switzerland returned to Warsaw to study. The outbreak of World War II eventually forced her to emigrate. She completed her medical studies and psychoanalytic training in England. For the rest of her life she emphasized her Polish roots and was proud of them. Hanna Segal together with another British analyst of Polish origin Wiktor Sedlak played a significant role in the period of the revival of psychoanalysis in Poland in the 1980s and 1990s.
WORLD WAR II
The outbreak of World War II, and the implementation of the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact signed between Germany and Russia, dramatically affected the lives of all people living in Poland. Already at the very beginning, in 1939 our country was divided between the communist USSR and fascist Germany. It is well known that Fascist Germany intended to exterminate the Jews. It must be stressed, however, that the two invaders were also pursuing a planned policy aimed at obliterating the Polish intellectual elite and transforming the nation into a slave mass. The course of the war in these areas was much fiercer than in Western Europe. The magnitude of destruction, loss and breach of continuity had a great impact on our destiny. The war not only destroyed the economy, but also overthrew the values that had to that point been considered inviolable. The trauma of this period left its mark on our reality as well as our consciousness and collective unconsciousness.
For psychoanalysis, it meant a complete disaster. As I mentioned earlier, most psychoanalysts emigrated before the outbreak of war. The only survivor of the war in Poland was Maurycy Bornstein, a doctor who in the years 1908-1939 was the head of the Psychiatric Ward of the Jewish Hospital in Warsaw, where psychoanalytic thought was propagated. He himself wrote a psychiatry manual in which he recommended working in the spirit of psychoanalysis. Initially he spent the war in the Warsaw Ghetto, and later on hid in one of the Warsaw suburbs. After the war, he worked in Lodz and continued to promote the ideas of psychoanalysis; however, they were not met with a positive response.
The post-war reconstruction of life in Poland took place in the specific conditions of the communist regime and dependence on the Soviet Union. Life behind the "iron curtain" brought with it a number of difficult experiences: authoritarianism, abuse of power and the restriction of fundamental civil liberties. The 1950s especially was a period of very intense repression on the part of the Stalinist regime - prison and death sentences for the so-called "class enemies". As early as 1949, the Soviet Union officially banned psychoanalysis as a bourgeois ideology. As a consequence, independent psychoanalytic thought in all countries of the Eastern Bloc, including Poland, was considered hostile. "In the philosophical dictionary of that period (1955) we can read: "Freudianism and Neofreudianism remain in the service of American imperialism, which uses "the theory" propagating consciousness is subordinate to “subconsciousness" to justify and develop the lowest and most despicable human aspirations and instincts" (Wojciechowska et al., 2012)
FROM THE1960s TO 1980s. WE START ANEW.
The historical context is necessary to understand why the ideas of psychoanalysis have been absent for so long and why their rebirth has been slow. Also, social processes are closely linked to historical events. The end of 1950s, after the death of Stalin, was the so-called “thaw” period. In response to this, various ideas came to life, including psychoanalytic thought. And here again there were individuals whose passion and determination gave rise to a broader process. As the colleagues from the History Team wrote: "In fact, until the 1990s, psychoanalysis was taught in Poland in a manner similar to the days of the beginnings of the psychoanalytic movement in Europe. The theory was studied and the practice was discussed in groups that were forming around leaders and which fulfilled the role normally played by training institutes. Some of the groups formed within the institution and had a more organized nature, while other ones worked quite informally." (Wojciechowska et al., 2012)
It is worth mentioning the names of people who played a significant role in promoting psychoanalysis in 1960s and 1970s. They were Jan Malewski, Michał Lapinski, Zbigniew Sokolik. They went through their own shuttled analysis in Czechoslovakia or in Hungary and tried to treat patients in the same spirit while promoting theoretical knowledge by organizing systematic seminars. The participants of these seminars, in turn, tried to spread the acquired knowledge in their workplaces. As a result, the group of people interested in psychoanalysis was growing.
This was a very intense period of time, the society experienced both losses and profits as two of the above mentioned leaders emigrated from Poland permanently. At the same time, from the end of the 1970s and particularly in the 1980s contacts with therapists from Western Europe had been developing. With the help of the analysts of Polish origin living abroad, and thanks to the activity of our colleagues, we were able to establish contacts with psychoanalysts from Germany, the United Kingdom and Sweden. We received tremendous help from these psychoanalytic societies, both in terms of content (supervisions, seminars, book sharing) as well as financial and organizational assistance. Without this help, we would certainly not have been able to develop in such a short time. Memories of that time and gratitude for the help received are still alive in our circles.
AFTER THE IRON CURTAIN: THE FIRST PSYCHOANALYTIC INSTITUTIONS
After 1989, the political situation in Poland changed and the process of democratization began. Together with it, there came openness to the world, freedom and revival of contacts with Western Europe. It was an extremely important period of the dynamic development for the psychoanalytic movement in Poland.
Almost at the same time (1991) two associations were formed: The Polish Society for Development of Psychoanalysis, and the Institute of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy. Both aimed at further development of psychoanalysis. The Society for Development of Psychoanalysis organized regular psychoanalysis training modelled on IPA standards, and talked about the possibility of accepting some of their members as IPA direct members. The efforts of Polish colleagues resulted in permanent cooperation with the IPA towards creating conditions for close integration within the framework of the IPA.
The turning point was organizing The Third Eastern European Seminar EPF in Pułtusk near Warsaw. 60 people from Eastern European countries, including 15 from Poland and 40 Western European psychoanalysts and representatives, participated in the event. After this meeting, decision was made to create a special mode of applying for direct membership in the IPA for Eastern European countries. The Site Visit Committee was set up to monitor the preparations for creating the Study Group. As a result of this cooperation and numerous efforts in the next decade, 12 people became direct members of IPA.
During this period many people supported our society and it is impossible to name them all, but Haan Groen Prakken, a Dutch psychoanalyst, played a key role. As a representative of the EPF and the IPA she visited the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and visited Poland many times from 1989 to 1998. The authors of the exhibition described her like that:
"Her ease of reconciling people, alleviating conflicts and understanding the intricate realities of post-communist countries were invaluable. Haan Groen Prakken supported our society in a very specific but also friendly way until we got the status of IPA Study Group. Still during her lifetime, the EPF's Eastern European Psychoanalytic Institute for Eastern Europe (The Haan Gröen-Prakken Psychoanalytic Institute for Eastern Europe) was established. It worked for many years training analysts from countries where psychoanalysis was just developing and Polish psychoanalysts held there the positions of teachers. (Wojciechowska et al., 2012)
WE JOIN THE IPA !
It has been 20 years since the Polish Psychoanalytical Society (PPS) was founded. At the Congress in Barcelona in 1997 we received the status of Study Group at IPA. In the following year, we started training for candidates, which at that time was monitored by the Sponsoring Committee. The Society then consisted of 18 members and 16 candidates. In 2004, we became the Provisional Society and 10 years ago, in 2007 we received the status of the Component Society – we had 31 analysts and 28 candidates at that time. It was a very special moment, the culmination of many years of efforts and endeavours of people from Poland as well as our friends from other countries.
Since the beginning of the Society's development, its teachers have placed emphasis on thorough education, which required a great deal of effort because English-language psychoanalytic books were hardly available and, in most cases, were not translated into Polish. We used to copy and translate ourselves selected passages, or used previous work prepared by our older colleagues. Thanks to these efforts we gained a good basis for further development and status to participate in international psychoanalytic life.
The Polish Psychoanalytic Society is developing dynamically, as shown by figures: we currently have 63 members and 33 candidates. More and more people who completed the training were involved in the activities and structures of the Society, which enabled a more comprehensive development of the whole society. I think we have avoided the inhibition resulting from the desire to maintain control or power by the same people. When Otto Kernberg (2006) wrote about authoritarian trends in psychoanalytic training, our Society also discussed the subject. For years, different ideas and tendencies have been clashing and discussions lead to democratic changes. A good example of this may be the fact that for several years, the Presidents of the Polish Psychoanalytic Society have come from the so-called second generation, that is, those who have been trained in our Society. The Training Committee has also a similar composition and because the heads of individual subcommittees are training analysts coming from the "second generation" too. It is also worth mentioning that among the members and candidates of our Society there are people living in different parts of Poland, not only in large cities like Gdańsk, Cracow, Poznań or Wrocław, but also in small towns. At present, more than 10% of candidates live outside of Warsaw, and our efforts have been aimed at facilitating training for such people and it seems to bring positive effects.
An important feature of our society is the curiosity and willingness to exchange with psychoanalysts from other countries. For a long time, the Society's authorities have been supporting all kinds of initiatives conducive to international exchange. We invite many foreign guests from different theoretical trends who conduct lectures and seminars. This cooperation is extremely interesting and fruitful. Since the beginning of PPS, we have been organizing conferences - traditionally once a year in May. This year we are going to have our jubilee 20th PPS Conference. For several years we have also been organizing autumn conferences, which are devoted to two themes in turn: children and adolescent psychoanalysis, and the thought of D.W. Winnicott. The psychoanalysts who are our conference guests come from different parts of the world and from different theoretical backgrounds. Our conferences attract a lot of interest – in recent years they have been attracting about 350 participants each, which shows that there is significant and constantly increasing interest in psychoanalysis in Poland.
The result of these processes is our more pronounced presence in the international psychoanalytic movement. It was a great honour for our Society to receive the proposal to organize the 31st EPF conference in March 22-25, 2018. We hope that the conference will be an opportunity for an inspiring exchange of thoughts around the main theme of "The Origin of Life", but it will also be a chance for others to become familiar with our country as well as our Society, which has recently been moved by the current political situation not only in Poland but also in other countries. Although Warsaw experienced the effects of totalitarianism in a very painful way, at present it still participates in reviving anti-Semitism and fascist sympathies. That is why it might be the right place to undertake a broader discussion not only about the origins of life, but also the origins of destruction that concerns us. On behalf of the members of the Polish Psychoanalytic Society as well as my own, I invite you to take part in a joint discussion. We look forward to seeing you in Warsaw.
Ewa Glod - President of the Polish Psychoanalytical Society
Dybel, P. (2016). Psychoanalysis -a promised land? History of psychoanalysis in Poland 1900-1989, part I, Kraków: Universitas.
Hundred Years War, or the whole age of psychoanalysis. Anna Turczyn talks with Elisabeth Roudinesco , ( 2008) IBL, Second texts, 207-221.
Magnione, L., (2016) Freud's Emissaries. Cultural Transfer of Psychoanalysis to Polish Intellectual Spheres Before World War II, Kraków: Universitas.
Wojciechowska, E., Makowiecka-Pastusiak, A., Myśliwiec-Ferduła, A., Szypusińska, A. (2012). Psychoanalysis in Poland. 15th anniversary of Poland's admission to IPA. An exhibition prepared by the History Team at the board of the Polish Psychoanalytic Society.
I would like to thank my colleagues from the team that worked on the history of Polish psychoanalysis: Ewa Wojciechowska, Agnieszka Makowiecka-Pastusiak, Agnieszka Myśliwiec-Ferduła and Anna Szypusińska. The exhibition prepared by this team for the 15th anniversary of PPS will be available for viewing at the EPF Conference in Warsaw.
2) THE EUROPEAN PSYCHOANALYTICAL FEDERATION AND THE CONFERENCE IN WARSAW 2018
The European Psychoanalytical Federation (EPF) is very grateful to the colleagues of the Polish Psychoanalytical Society for giving the opportunity to conduct the 31st EPF Conference in Warsaw 2018. Warsaw with its changeful and tragic as well as heroic history is a most appropriate place for a cooperative exchange about the conference theme “The Origin of Life”. In the last century, Warsaw and its inhabitants had to suffer from so many painful deaths but they were also able to survive the terrible destruction executed by the German Nazi war criminals. Warsaw had to also overcome a long period of repression by the communist system. We remember and honour the heroic resistance of the Polish Jews and all Polish citizens who fought against the Nazi barbarism and thus finally gave space for the predominance of life over death, even if so many people had lost their lives. The defeat and capitulation of the German army had been a starting point for new hope and new life in Europe even if there followed other political vicissitudes and difficulties in Poland which persist until today. The analytical traveller who arrives in Warsaw from abroad, and visits the scars and resurrection of the city´s architecture can also dare to sense the fight between life and death in the impressive Rising Museum and in the Jewish Museum. He/she will be deeply touched by a vast amount of emotions, oscillating between horror, fear of death, admiration of bravery and relief by new hope. The traveller may be reminded of Freud´s (1915) statement:
“We recall the old saying: Si vis pacem, para bellum. If you want to preserve peace, arm for war. It would be in keeping with the times to alter it: Si vis vitam, para mortem. If you want to endure life, prepare yourself for death. (SE, 14, p. 300)
But the traveller may also remember another remark in which Freud (1930) declares:
“And now it is to be expected that the other of the two ‘Heavenly Powers’ [p. 133], eternal Eros, will make an effort to assert himself in the struggle with his equally immortal adversary. But who can foresee with what success and with what result?” (SE 21, p 145).
Contemporary psychoanalysis continues to deal with this struggle between Eros and Thanatos and it is one crucial dimension of our psychoanalytic practice to support the transformation of mentally dead areas into a livelier psychic existence.
Against this backdrop, the topic of the next EPF Conference in Warsaw is “The Origin of Life”. In this conference, we want to reconsider the origin of life under the conditions of a culturally and technically changing world. In our psychoanalytic consulting rooms, we now come across an increasing number of individuals who, for a variety of reasons, are willing to take advantage of the wide range of new possibilities of modern reproductive medicine, which covers the whole spectrum available from in vitro fertilization to egg cell donation or even embryo transfer, and thus make their fantasies into technologically supported realities. This, of course, may have considerable and serious consequences for all the adult persons involved, particularly in view of their psychological self-understanding or identity feeling, but all the more for those children who owe their existence to these new opportunities for the application of assisted reproduction technologies (ART). This development poses a major challenge to us as psychoanalysts. Neither can we uncritically welcome the technically feasible, nor can we categorically disapprove of and thus pathologize it. In our conference, we want to take up a research perspective and investigate the different aspects
We want to ask: when does life begin, especially when does human life begin, and when does human mental life begin? What is it, that makes us as humans specifically human, also in comparison with other mammals? And what is in all this the role of biology and the role of homeostasis, the role of the mother-child dialogue and mother-father-child trialogue, the role of language acquisition and the integration of one's own life story? And when, how and why does a child come to acquire confidence in his cognitive faculties, in his ”epistemic trust“, and under which conditions is this destined to failure?
All of this pertains to the question of the origin of human life - and that certainly also includes the unconscious transmission of the earlier experiences of the previous generations to the next one. It would, therefore, be worth exploring and clarifying what the unconscious transgenerational routes and mental pathways are, by which, for example, the traumatic experiences of previous generations are transmitted and thus passed on to the next generations. And it will even be more exciting to consider the question of whether, or to what extent, changes in the regulatory structures of the genes of previous generations are transmitted and passed on to the next generation. In this respect, the fascinating field of epigenetic research opens up new horizons of knowledge that substantiate the classical psychoanalytic concepts. Epigenetic research results fit well with Freud's concept of the “complemental series” in the genesis of neuroses (1905d, Standard Edition, Vol 7). In this sense, the conference will offer several opportunities to discuss the close interdependency of the genetic endowment and the quality of parental relationship and parenting behaviour. This interdependency will also be of crucial importance for the understanding of the psychological development of children conceived by in-vitro-fertilization or other methods of medically assisted reproductive technologies.
Coming back to Eros and Thanatos as the two forces that destine human life: especially in view of the fact that eighty percent of the city of Warsaw was destroyed during the Second World War, we also want to open a space for the question: Is a new life conceivable at all in the wake of such terrible and horrendous destruction? And how, in the face of such devastation, can a new beginning, a re-birth of life possibly come about?
The EPF looks forward to welcoming you in Warsaw.
Heribert Blass, Vice President of the European Psychoanalytical Federation
3) OPENING OF THE 31st EPF CONFERENCE IN WARSAW
In my opening speech of welcome to this 31st EPF Conference, I should like to share some considerations with you. I should also like to thank our Polish colleagues very warmly for their hospitality and collaboration, and all of you for your participation.
As you will see, for this occasion we have chosen a difficult and complex topic: The Origin of Life. The word ‘complex’ – from the Latin complector, indicating a connection and concatenation between the parts – is not casual and does not mean complicated but, rather, a system consisting of many parts that influence one another. This type of problem requires a systemic trans-disciplinary approach and it is reasonable to say that the human system is of this nature.
This has led us to plan a program that, in its general layout, privileges this basic concept. We begin with a presentation, in the first plenary, conducted by analysts who work with the new reproductive techniques and who, in the reality of their clinical practice in everyday life and in the public service institutions, share the process of psychoanalytical reflection resulting from them.
The theme of the beginning of mental life will lead to a work on “Epistemic trust and the transmission of culture”, to be followed by a lecture on the “Foundations of gender from biology to psychology to biology”, a title that nicely interprets the trans-disciplinarity mentioned above, i.e. the idea of the inter-relationship between parts that influence each another reciprocally. The final plenary with its expressive title asks “How we became human?” A round table will try to put together everything that these presentations will tell us. It will include the presence of a biologist and will take into account the revolutionary contributions of epigenetic that from various points of view are so close to Freudian ideas. Several panels, workshops and individual papers will then complete the picture.
When we were thinking about the location for the conference, our first decision was: we have to go East. After the fall of the Berlin wall, the dream and pioneering work of Haan Gröen Prakken became more real. Going East meant emphasizing and recognizing the efforts and contribution to psychoanalysis coming from the Eastern countries of Europe. It also meant highlighting the joint work of the EPF and the IPA in the creation and maintenance of the PIEE and afterwards the EPI, institutions that have played a decisive role in the development of psychoanalysis in Europe.
And so the choice fell on Warsaw, a city that is emblematic for its long, turbulent and terrible recent history, from the criminal invasion of the German Nazis to the almost complete destruction of the city, the confinement of the Jews within the Ghetto and the subsequent massacre of nearly 500,000 of them. After the Wannsee conference in January 1942, the extermination of the whole Jewish population resident in Europe was planned, and in the summer of 1942 the mass deportation of the Jews began. For the Jews of Warsaw this became the ‘final solution’ in Treblinka, 80km from Warsaw, where between July and September 300,000 Jewish people were put to death. This led to the Ghetto Uprising with the heroic resistance of its inhabitants. On February 1943 Himmler gave the order to annihilate the Jews and “bandits”, the 'Untermenschen' (sub-humans) of the Jewish quarter and to arrive to the complete destruction of the Ghetto. On 16th May the Uprising ended. They were nearly all dead. A monument to the heroes of the Ghetto 'Pomnik Bohaterów Getta' stands at the beginning of the Memorial Route 'Trakt Męczeństwa i Walki Źydów'. Among the monuments built after the war there is also the beautiful Museum of the History of the Polish Jews.
This was followed (in 1944) by the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazi occupation, an uprising that lasted 63 days with the subsequent deportation of the population of Warsaw for retaliation and the almost total destruction of the city. It should be pointed out, however, that the Soviet troops on the other side of the river stood by and looked on without doing anything, only to occupy the city afterwards. At the end of this conflict, the tragic history of Warsaw continued with the long and painful Soviet occupation and more deaths.
I know that all of you, beginning obviously with our Polish colleagues, know better than I do the history that I have briefly intimated, but being here in Warsaw, I feel it is my personal and psychoanalytical duty to explicitly mention it. It is the living memory that we as analysts have to keep alive in us, the memory of destruction and death of 3 millions of Jews in Poland.
The years passed and on 7th December 1970, Chancellor Willy Brandt made a gesture that provoked surprise and discussion but revealed in Brandt and in the Germans who approved of it, an attempt at a critical elaboration and admission of guilt for a past that was terrible, unbearable. Brandt’s kneeling before the monument to the victims of the Warsaw Uprising became known as the ‘Kniefall von Warschau’. The 'Vergangenheitsbewältigung', critical elaboration, overcoming, reconciliation in the Freudian sense of Versöhnung, can only have meaning after a recognition of the past. Recognition cannot be unilateral but has to be agreed by all sectors of the community in order to be effective, taking into account all levels of responsibility.
What was called the ‘Jedwabne Pogrom’ (1941) can serve as an example: attributed exclusively to the Einsatzgruppe of the SS, it involved inhabitants who were non-Jewish. The study on the murder of the Jews was published by the American Jew Jan T. Gross and caused much controversy in Poland. However, in 2002 the Polish Institute of National Remembrance recognized the truth of many of the author’s statements.
In my opinion, it would be a great error of ingenuity to think of this past - in the light of certain contemporary manifestations - as being passed. A critical elaboration must refer to the present, must involve everyone in the interpretation of the dangers that are arising today and that bring with them some terrible signs of that past. As we all know, democracy is fragile and vulnerable, and the ambiguity and denial of history weaken it.
I only want to say that all of us must put pressure on those who govern us to remind them that the foundations of the European supranational community and of the national communities are the concepts of human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality and human rights - concepts written in the Treaty of the European Union.
My memory leads me spontaneously to mention the title of a book that tells the story of the military repression in Argentina between 1976 and 1983, the story of the dead, the tortured, the disappeared. The title is “Nunca más”, never again, it must not happen again, and it was the Report of the “Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas” (CONADEP, National Commission on the Disappeared Persons ) dated September 1984. The idea for the title was suggested by Rabbi Marshall T. Meyer, a North American and the only foreigner on the Comisiòn who worked for many years in Latin America, recalling the expression used after the War for those who survived the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
Our project for this Conference has always been focused on the concept of dialogue, both scientific and in reality. We hope this will be a dialogue that is both true and enriching.
Jorge Canestri - EPF President